Jhapa is home to many indigenous ethnic nationalities such as the Limbu, Rai, and Dhimal . Other ethnic groups such as Dhangad, Koche, Rajbanshi, Satar, Meche, Tamang, Uraon, Magar, Gurung ,Gangain and many others came to Jhapa in the late 19th century, so did the Hill/mountain castes Bahun, Chhettri, and Newar.
Jhapa is diverse and rich in culture and traditions due to the influences of its different tribes. All the tribes/ethnic groups have their own languages, customs and traditions, and they celebrate their festivals every year.
Climate and Geography
Jhapa receives 250 to 300 cm of rainfall a year, and mostly during the monsoon season in the summer, and its hilly northern area receives more rainfall than the south. Its major rivers, like the Mechi River, Kankai Mai, Ratuwa, Biring, Deuniya,(Aduwa), (Bhuteni)(Dhangri), Hadiya, and Ninda,KrishneKhola, Gauriya, Ramchandreetc provide water for irrigation. Due to its alluvial soil best suited for agriculture, Jhapa has been the largest producer of rice and is therefore known as the Grain Grocery of Nepal. Besides cereal crops like rice and wheat, it is also one of the largest producers of jute, tea, betel nut, rubber and other cash crops.
Jhapa also has vast areas of forests, such as Deonia, Charali, CharkoseJhaadi, Hadiya, Sukhani, Jalthal, and others. Its name itself is derived from the Rajbanshi word "jhapa" meaning "canopy", which suggests that the area was a dense forest in the past. It was once such a dense and dangerous forest that it was called Kaalapaani and prisoners were sent here to die of malaria and other diseases in the jungle.